Transmission line reflectometer using frequency-modulated continuous wave

This invention provides apparatus for and a method of locally or remotely monitoring a number of geophysical and other variables related to the refractive index of materials, e.g., soil and pavement moisture content; the moisture content of bulk food products such as grains and beans; liquid levels in storage tanks; interface levels between water and floating layers of oil; the thickness of ice layers; the water/ice interface in partially frozen ground; the location of liquid and gas leaks on roofs, in landfill liners, geosynthetic membranes, and pipelines; and the cables. The detection technique is based on the reflection of frequency-modulated continuous waves during their propagation along transmission line probes embedded in the material being tested.
Inventors: 

Norbert E. Yankielun

Patent Number: 
US6281688
Patent Issue Date: 
September 28, 2001
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